Is it biased; how so? What does the document tell us about the time period in which was written?
Study Questions 1 In what ways did the writings of Comenius and Grotius foreshadow the themes of the later Enlightenment? The works of Comenius and Grotius set the stage for Enlightenment thought in a variety of ways.
Comenius emphasized the importance of education, claiming that educated citizens would be less likely to go to war. With this suggestion, Comenius made the same argument that the French philosophes would almost a century later—that reason, and the ability to think and analyze a situation, could solve the problems of the world.
Both Comenius and Grotius stressed the importance of treating men as individuals, not as commodities—a sentiment that they expressed in different ways.
Comenius felt that, physiologically speaking, we are all the same, and it is therefore unnecessary to fight with each other. In short, although they phrased it different ways, both men set forth the same ideas: Although both hailed from England and both rose to prominence early in the Enlightenment, Hobbes and Locke took diametrically opposite approaches in their political philosophies.
Hobbes was steadfast in his belief that all humans are inherently evil or base by nature. As a result, all people are intrinsically motivated to provide themselves with as many resources as possible.
Because resources in the world are limited, people thus become selfish and greedy in their competition for these resources. Hobbes believed that fear was the most effective way to control the citizenry and prevent the disorder that would result from each individual greedily pursuing his or her wants.
Locke was far more optimistic, stating that all humans were capable and that they strove for the betterment of the world. His one caveat was that humans in a society would all have to compromise on some of their ideals in the interest of forming a government that best served everyone—however, he believed that humans were reasonable enough to do so.
Subsequently, Locke was a proponent of a representative democracy.
In the late s and early s, when the Enlightenment was well under way in Britain and France, Germany was highly fragmented both politically and culturally. It was technically not a nation at all but rather a multitude of small sovereign states. Furthermore, nearly all of these states were ruled by despots who instituted strict censorship, stifling intellectual development and making the dissemination of new knowledge difficult.
German culture and literature were likewise disjointed, with different regions drawing on different influences and no distinct literary style yet in place. Whereas France and other European countries used vernacular languages for literature, the literary language in Germany was still predominantly Latin.
As a result, Enlightenment ideas from England and France took a long time to spread to Germany. Moreover, German intellectual culture had a prominent streak of conservatism that was lacking in England and France.
Christianity was still a dominant force in Germany, where there was not nearly the level of popular discontent with religion and the Church that there was in other western European nations. Leibniz, for instance, made a number of great discoveries in mathematics and philosophy, but his religious devotion kept him from straying too far from tradition.
As a result, when the German Enlightenment finally did begin in the late s, it proceeded in an entirely different direction from the English and French Enlightenments, embracing reason and rationalism but maintaining strong elements of religion and spirituality at the same time.You’ll find sample multiple-choice, short-answer, and free-response questions in this full AP European History Practice Exam .pdf/MB).
Sample Responses. Student responses to past exam free-response questions are available on AP Central. Short-Answer Response Booklets. Advanced Placement European History II: The Modern World New Directions.
Augustine Caliguire, The Center for Learning. • The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment • The French Revolution and Napoleon • Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism thematic essay questions. The DBQ essay is worth 45 percent of the free-. Sample Essay Prompt: Discuss the differences and similarities between the English rulers of the mid s and the French rulers in regard to the policy, practice, and success of Absolutism.
European governments of the s were often run by leaders known as “absolutists,” who tried to control as much of their country as possible. European history, particularly as tested on the Advanced Placement exam, requires students to master a multifaceted approach to history.
Of course, the AP test also utilizes a challenging format, with difficult multiple-choice questions and an exacting essay in the form of the document-based question. Review the events and ideologies that have shaped the Western world with Albert's AP® European History practice questions.
AP® European History Study Guide. Review the events and ideologies that have shaped the Western world with Albert's AP® European History practice questions.
Analyze the extent to which Enlightenment values were. ap european history free-response questions ® Use the map below to answer all parts of the question that follows.
Each dot represents a city that produced at least 50 different books or book editions during the period –