A relatively minor point, though not trivial, has been the issue of the biological relatedness of the Jewish people, and their relatedness to the nations among whom they were resident. This particular point became more starkly relevant with a scientific understanding of human genealogy and genetic relationship in the 18th and especially 19th centuries, but its root can be traced back to antiquity. Jews are not simply a set of individuals who espouse a belief in the God of the Jews, or hold to the laws of the God of the Jews. Rather, one aspect of Jewish identity is its collective component whereby the adherents of the Jewish religion also conceive of themselves as a particular nation or tribe, and therefore bound together by a chain of biological descent.
Biometric functionality[ edit ] Many different aspects of human physiology, chemistry or behavior can be used for biometric authentication. The selection of a particular biometric for use in a specific application involves a weighting of several factors. Universality means that every person using a system should possess the trait.
Uniqueness means the trait should be sufficiently different for individuals in the relevant population such that they can be distinguished from one another. Permanence relates to the manner in which a trait varies over time.
Measurability collectability relates to the ease of acquisition or measurement of the trait. In addition, acquired data should be in a form that permits subsequent processing and extraction of the relevant feature sets.
Performance relates to the accuracy, speed, and robustness of technology used see performance section for more details. Acceptability relates to how well individuals in the relevant population accept the technology such that they are willing to have their biometric trait captured and assessed.
Circumvention relates to the ease with which a trait might be imitated using an artifact or substitute. Proper biometric use is very application dependent. Certain biometrics will be better than others based on the required levels of convenience and security.
Three steps are involved in the verification of a person. In the second step, some samples are matched with reference models to generate the genuine and impostor scores and calculate the threshold.
Third step is the testing step. This process may use a smart cardusername or ID number e. PIN to indicate which template should be used for comparison. The system will succeed in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold.
The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called enrollment. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is captured and stored. In subsequent uses, biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment.
Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block sensor is the interface between the real world and the system; it has to acquire all the necessary data.
Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired.
The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: In the third block necessary features are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted in the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template.
A template is a synthesis of the relevant characteristics extracted from the source. Elements of the biometric measurement that are not used in the comparison algorithm are discarded in the template to reduce the filesize and to protect the identity of the enrollee[ citation needed ].
During the enrollment phase, the template is simply stored somewhere on a card or within a database or both. During the matching phase, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm e.
The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose e.
Selection of biometrics in any practical application depending upon the characteristic measurements and user requirements. Selection of a biometric based on user requirements considers sensor and device availability, computational time and reliability, cost, sensor size and power consumption. Multimodal biometric system[ edit ] Multimodal biometric systems use multiple sensors or biometrics to overcome the limitations of unimodal biometric systems.
While unimodal biometric systems are limited by the integrity of their identifier, it is unlikely that several unimodal systems will suffer from identical limitations. Multimodal biometric systems can obtain sets of information from the same marker i.
Fusion of the biometrics information can occur at different stages of a recognition system. In case of feature level fusion, the data itself or the features extracted from multiple biometrics are fused.
Matching-score level fusion consolidates the scores generated by multiple classifiers pertaining to different modalities. Finally, in case of decision level fusion the final results of multiple classifiers are combined via techniques such as majority voting.
Feature level fusion is believed to be more effective than the other levels of fusion because the feature set contains richer information about the input biometric data than the matching score or the output decision of a classifier.
Therefore, fusion at the feature level is expected to provide better recognition results.Appvion Initiates Process to Restructure Debt and Position Business for Long-Term Success - Company and Subsidiaries Commence Chapter 11 Cases to Facilitate Financial Restructuring.
NIST Special Publication B. Digital Identity Guidelines Authentication and Lifecycle Management. Paul A. Grassi James L. Fenton Elaine M. Newton.
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You need to give your biometrics. You now need to give your fingerprints and photo (biometrics) when you apply for a study permit if you are from Europe, the Middle East or Africa.. Find out who needs to give biometrics and how the new application process works.
Appvion Initiates Process to Restructure Debt and Position Business for Long-Term Success - Company and Subsidiaries Commence Chapter 11 Cases to Facilitate Financial Restructuring. By the end of the year, Qantas passengers who want to be part of the trial will be able to pass through the six steps of check in, bag drop, border processing, security screening, airport lounge.