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Academy In ancient Greece, after the establishment of the original Academy, Plato 's colleagues and pupils developed spin-offs of his method.
Arcesilausa Greek student of Plato established the Middle Academy. Carneadesanother student, established the New Academy. In BC, Aristotle refined the method with his own theories and established the Lyceum in another gymnasium.
Africa[ edit ] The library of Alexandria in Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa, Europe and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy, language and mathematics. The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktupresent-day Maliwhich comprised three schools: During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25, students within a city of aroundpeople.
The Imperial Central Academy at Nanjingfounded inwas a result of the evolution of Shang Xiang and it became the first comprehensive institution combining education and research and was divided into five faculties inwhich later became Nanjing University.
In the 8th century another kind of institution of learning emerged, named Shuyuanwhich were generally privately owned. There were thousands of Shuyuan recorded in ancient times. The degrees from them varied from one to from inquiry to academic writing.
2nd ed and those advanced Shuyuan such as Bailudong Shuyuan and Yuelu Shuyuan can be classified as higher institutions of learning. India[ edit ] Taxila or Takshashilain ancient Indiamodern-day Pakistanwas an early centre of learning, near present-day Islamabad in the city of Taxila.
It is considered as one of the ancient universities of the world. According to scattered references which were only fixed a millennium later it may have dated back to at least the 5th century BC.
Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya. The famous treatise Arthashastra Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics by Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself.
The Vedas and the Eighteen Artswhich included skills such as archeryhuntingand elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law schoolmedical schooland school of military science.
It survived until when it was set upon, destroyed and burnt by the marauding forces of Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji. It was devoted to Buddhist studies, but it also trained students in fine arts, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, politics and the art of war. It had a nine-story library where monks meticulously copied books and documents so that individual scholars could have their own collections.
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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Main article: Its library had an initial collection of 80, volumes, given by the Caliph. The collection was said to have grown tovolumes. Medieval university In Europethe academy dates to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the pre-Christian era.
Newer universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries, and the European institution of academia took shape. Monks and priests moved out of monasteries to cathedral cities and other towns where they opened the first schools dedicated to advanced study.
The most notable of these new schools were in BolognaSalamancaParisOxford and Cambridgewhile others were opened throughout Europe. The seven liberal arts — the Trivium GrammarRhetoricand Logicand the Quadrivium ArithmeticGeometryMusicand Astronomy — had been codified in late antiquity.
This was the basis of the curriculum in Europe until newly available Arabic texts and the works of Aristotle became more available in Europe in the 12th century. It remained in place even after the new scholasticism of the School of Chartres and the encyclopedic work of Thomas Aquinasuntil the humanism of the 15th and 16th centuries opened new studies of arts and sciences.
Renaissance academies in Italy[ edit ] With the Neoplatonist revival that accompanied the revival of humanist studiesaccademia took on newly vivid connotations.
Cosimo had been inspired by the arrival at the otherwise ineffective Council of Florence of Gemistos Plethonwho seemed a dazzling figure to the Florentine intellectuals. The academy remained a wholly informal group, but one which had a great influence on Renaissance Neo-Platonism. Roman academies In Rome, after unity was restored following the Western Schismhumanist circles, cultivating philosophy and searching out and sharing ancient texts tended to gather where there was access to a library.
The Vatican Library was not coordinated until and was never catalogued or widely accessible: At the head of this movement for renewal in Rome was Cardinal Bessarionwhose house from the mid-century was the centre of a flourishing academy of Neoplatonic philosophy and a varied intellectual culture.
His valuable Greek as well as Latin library eventually bequeathed to the city of Venice after he withdrew from Rome was at the disposal of the academicians. Bessarion, in the latter years of his life, retired from Rome to Ravennabut he left behind him ardent adherents of the classic philosophy.
The next generation of humanists were bolder admirers of pagan culture, especially in the highly personal academy of Pomponius Letothe natural son of a nobleman of the Sanseverino family, born in Calabria but known by his academic name, who devoted his energies to the enthusiastic study of classical antiquity, and attracted a great number of disciples and admirers.
He was a worshipper not merely of the literary and artistic form, but also of the ideas and spirit of classic paganism, which made him appear a condemner of Christianity and an enemy of the Church. In his academy every member assumed a classical name. In their self-confidence, these first intellectual neopagans compromised themselves politically, at a time when Rome was full of conspiracies fomented by the Roman barons and the neighbouring princes:🔥Citing and more!
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The Supreme Court has ruled that the right belongs to individuals for self-defense, while also ruling that the right is not unlimited and does not prohibit long .
Second Language Writing and Research: The Writing Process and Error Analysis in Student Texts. Johanne Myles Queen's University. An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary alphabetnyc.com term academia refers to the worldwide human group composed of professors and researchers at institutes of higher learning..
The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded approximately BC at Akademia, a. 3 Attacking Academic Excellence, Scientific Inquiry and Dumbing-down Education in Perú and the Third World. Undergraduate Degree: Overview. San Francisco State University undergraduates will emerge from their studies with a breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding developed from integrating their coursework and academic experiences in both general education and the major.