How to write a parenthetical citation

Use hyphens, not en dashes. Your word processor might automatically use en dashes.

How to write a parenthetical citation

Parenthetical Citations MLA: Step-by-Step Guide (for )

Citing websites in the text can be confusing, since they sometimes lack authors and typically do not have page numbers -- two bits of information usually included in parenthetical references. In that case, you'd move on to whatever information is available to help your reader find the source of the referenced information.

Sites with an Author The Chicago 16th editionAmerican Psychological Association 6th edition and Harvard 5th edition documentation styles have similar requirements for parenthetical references for a website with an author.

In all three styles, you would give the author's last name followed by the publication date, when possible. APA puts a comma between the author's name and the publication date, while Chicago and Harvard do not.

For example, in APA, such a reference might be: The company followed suit Stannis,while Chicago and Harvard styles would require the following: The company followed suit Stannis Both APA and Harvard require a page number, paragraph number or section title after the date to indicate the specific location of the information, when possible, while Chicago does not.

For example, if the website didn't have page numbers, an example might be: Harris agrees that "fads fade"para. If you are using Modern Language Association 7th edition documentation, give the author.

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

Include a page, paragraph or section number if the web page includes them; otherwise, leave them off: Incidents increased threefold over the month Stannis par. Sites with No Author For sites with no author, use the title of the page in quotation marks instead. If the title is long, just use the first few words of the title -- enough to differentiate it from your other sources.

If no date appears anywhere, indicate that with "n. In Chicago style, you'd have: The firm opened in "History" n. APA and Harvard would add a comma, like so: The firm opened in "History," n.

Since MLA style does not include dates in the parenthetical references, just give the page title in quotation marks: The firm opened in "History".

How to write a parenthetical citation

Just as with sites with authors, you would include the page, paragraph number or section number when possible. Cite this Article A tool to create a citation to reference this article Cite this Article.The parenthetical citations direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed in the Works Cited, located at the end of the document.

In most cases, the parenthetical citations include the author's last name and the specific page number for the information cited. If you list the name of the author, the parenthetical citation need only contain the page number. Example: "Friedman realized early that to write intelligently about world economics he needed to make himself an expert in six tightly integrated domains that are usually reported separately.

If you are quoting from a Web page, your citation for a parenthetical reference follows the same format as any regular citations for author, editor, title, etc. with one exception.


To cite information obtained from the Internet, you should write in your text, e.g. Several different systems of citation are in use in various academic communities (such as footnotes and endnotes), but APA Style uses a kind of parenthetical referencing called the author–date system.

Parenthetical citation, also known as in-text citation, is an easy way to create citations within your document, allowing your reader to see where you found the information without looking at the bottom of the page or the end of the document for a footnote or endnote.

List both works in the parenthetical citation exactly as they would be listed individually, but separate them with a semicolon. List the sources in the same order they will appear in the Works Cited list (alphabetical by first entry). Subjects: Citations, Help, Reference, Writing.

EasyBib: Free Bibliography Generator - MLA, APA, Chicago citation styles