Short-range assessments that inform daily instruction Diagnose where students are in learning and find gaps in knowledge and understanding Adjust, plan, guide, and inform daily instruction Mid-range assessments that allow for the aggregation of results Test learning of recent content towards long-term goals Evaluate and monitor educational programs, curricular, and pedagogical methods Predict, anticipate, or track student performance on specific academic goals within a limited time frame Long-range assessments that gauge mastery of content toward state content standards Frequency Immediate, constant, steady stream of evidence, e. A snapshot between intervals of predetermined periods, e. How does formative assessment fit into a core curriculum and instruction?
Sign Up Follow us 1. When socioeconomic diversity policies are well implemented, they appear to produce strong academic outcomes for students and better prepare them for living in a diverse society. Almost all of the districts studied that have had socioeconomic integration plans in place long enough to have an effect are seeing positive student outcomes.
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|School Integration in Practice: Lessons from Nine Districts||By Rakesh Kochhar and Richard Fry The Great Recession, fueled by the crises in the housing and financial markets, was universally hard on the net worth of American families. But even as the economic recovery has begun to mend asset prices, not all households have benefited alike, and wealth inequality has widened along racial and ethnic lines.|
|Chapter 1: Overview||However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper. However, depending on the depth and range of the extant literature, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended.|
For example, in Cambridgewhich has had a socioeconomic integration plan in place sincestudents outperform those in demographically similar districts in Massachusetts on state English, math, and science exams.
That compares to a 73 percent black student graduation rate and 82 percent overall graduation rate nationally in the —14 school year, the most recent year for which data are available. The achievement differences are smaller not because white students do worse, but because all subgroups of students perform better.
Of course, high performance might be explained by the fact that only the most motivated students apply to magnets, but careful research comparing magnet school lottery winners and losers has found positive results for student achievement. In Stamfordtoo, low-income students perform above the state average and gaps in graduation rates between disadvantaged and advantaged students have fallen substantially.
In Jefferson Countythe proportion of students deemed College and Career Ready nearly doubled between and While school integration is often politically challenging, key steps—such as the use of choice and incentives—can smooth the path to community support. Most of the districts profiled use public school choice and incentives such as magnet schoolsrather than compulsory busing, to achieve integration.
Many districts are able to marry choice and integration quite successfully. In Champaignclose to 90 percent of kindergartners receive their first choice school. In Jefferson County Louisvillethe first choice placement rate is also 90 percent.
The reliance on choice rather than compulsory busing in Louisville may be one explanation for the dramatic uptick in community support over the years.
For example, Hartford is able to draw suburban students into one of the poorest cities in the country using a system of forty-five magnet schools.
The proportion of Hartford students attending integrated schools has increased from 11 percent a decade ago to a projected 46 percent in In order to ensure that choice plans are equitable, family information centers have been established to ensure that all parents make informed choices.
And successful districts also provide free transportation. This led to a political backlash and the resignation of the superintendent there.
But even here, students became used to integrated schools and the newly drawn boundary lines remain in effect. Several New York City community school districts are working to design controlled choice admissions policies, efforts which might not have continued in the absence of funding.
Setting clear system-wide goals for integration increases the likelihood of achieving success. Not surprisingly, setting clear goals to integrate all schools in a district leads to much broader integration than programs focused on a small subset of schools.
CambridgeChampaignJefferson Countyand Stamford all have system-wide goals that all schools should be within a range of the district-wide average for disadvantaged student populations and all have been quite successful in achieving integration.
In Stamford, for example, eighteen or twenty schools fall within plus or minus 10 percentage points of the district average for socioeconomic diversity.
Some higher-poverty districts, such as Dallas and Chicagohave, by contrast, addressed socioeconomic integration within only a small subset of schools, leaving many students in segregated environments.
High-poverty districts might appear to have no choice in the matter, but, as Lesson 4 below suggests, they do have other options. Policies that break down artificial walls between city and suburb can have greater impact than those limited to existing district lines.Prevent Plagiarism.
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Differentiating Instruction using Multiple Intelligences in the Elementary School Classroom: A Literature Review by Suzanna Gangi A Research Paper.
Differentiating Instruction using Multiple Intelligences in the Elementary School Classroom: A Literature Review by Suzanna Gangi A Research Paper. The median wealth of white households was 13 times the wealth of black households and 10 times that of Hispanic households in , compared with eight and nine times, respectively, in At a time when American society is being torn along racial, ethnic, economic, and religious lines, school leaders in a small but growing number of districts are quietly taking steps to make things better.
Introduction. People's performance in leadership roles, roles calling for the effective exercise of interpersonal influence (Bass and Bass, , Yukl, ), is an exceptionally complex alphabetnyc.com a result, leadership performance can be understood using a number of different meta-models.