Thereafter, reports should be submitted at least every four years after the first report was due and should include obstacles encountered in implementing the Convention fully and the measures adopted to overcome such obstacles. Take appropriate steps to ensure the dissemination of the Convention, the reports of the States parties under article 18 and the reports of the Committee in the language of the States concerned; 3. Seek the assistance of the Secretary-General and the Department of Public Information in providing translations of the Convention and the reports of the Committee; 4. Include in their initial and periodic reports the action taken in respect of this recommendation.
International human rights law and gender equality: The context of international human rights law a The development of international human rights standards b The importance of women in combat gender equality human rights instruments c Domestic implementation of international human rights norms d Gender-specific norms and standards B.
Some critical issues relating to the scope and application of human rights a Rights-holders and duty-holders b The nature of obligations of States C. The role of civil society D. The role of multilateral and bilateral entities in realizing human rights at the national level a The role of multilateral entities b The role of bilateral entities c Common efforts of multilateral and bilateral entities in realizing a rights-based approach F.
During this decade there has been a significant shift in approach to women's advancement and empowerment. While previously the advancement of women was regarded as important for outcomes such as economic development or population policies, more than ever the international community has come to consider the empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status as important ends in themselves.
This shift in approach reflects a human rights approach to issues of concern to women. Parallel to this shift in approach to women's advancement has been an increased emphasis on the importance of a rights-based approach to planning and programming generally.
In his reform proposals, the Secretary-General has made clear that human rights are a cross-cutting element that should be reflected in all United Nations policies and programmes. The High Commissioner for Human Rights is also stressing that human rights are integral to all activities, including peace-making, peace-keeping, peace-building, humanitarian assistance and development.
Several factors explain these developments. First, the framework of international human rights law provides a forum for asserting individual claims of human rights violation.
Some victims of human rights violation, including women who have suffered discrimination on the basis of sex, for example, those denied citizenship on the same basis as men, have successfully sought relief in international tribunals. The approach and decisions at international level have shaped decisions of regional and domestic tribunals, which have also provided remedies for individuals, including women, who have encountered denial of their human rights.
Perhaps more importantly, the language of human rights allows legitimate claims to be articulated with a moral authority which other approaches lack. It is a language which is recognized by the powerful, and which stimulates deep chords of response in many.
It is a language which has the potential to empower individuals and communities at the grass-roots level to believe that they have a right to education, to health care or any other right.
Human rights speak in broad terms about the fundamental entitlement of all human beings to live in dignity, and in conditions of social justice and thereby provide a foundation from which to establish a set of demands premised on the intrinsic worth of the individual.
The human rights approach justifies legitimate claims, not because the realization of rights such as that to health or life is a means to another end, such as quality child care, environment, development or population policies, but because the realization of their rights is an important goal in itself.
Human rights also promise the engagement of the responsibility of the State in a way that other approaches to claims cannot.
The conceptualization of a claim as a human right immediately involves the recognition of State and international responsibility if that claim is denied or violated. Concerns, when conceived of as rights, are elevated from the realm of State and international promises premised on good faith, to a level of legal entitlement requiring national and international response.
Concerns, when conceived of as claims of human rights, become fundamental, immutable and priority claims. Human rights not only create entitlements for rights-holders, but they also create duties for States.
States are required to ensure the fulfilment of human rights by acting in a way that enables rights-holders to enjoy the rights to which they are entitled. Human rights require that actions - of a legislative, administrative, policy or programme nature - are considered in light of the obligations inherent in human rights.
Actions which violate or fail to support the realization of human rights contravene human rights obligations. A rights-based approach thus assumes the creation of an enabling environment in which human rights can be enjoyed.
A rights-based approach also promises an environment which can prevent the many conflicts based on poverty, discrimination and exclusion. Despite the recent focus on the rights-based approach, the meaning and practical implications of such an approach for policy making processes and operational activities, particularly in the context of development and humanitarian assistance, require greater clarity.
This paper seeks to provide an understanding of the international human rights framework, and the challenges that must be addressed in integrating it into these processes in order to realize gender equality.
A number of premises underlie the paper. First, human rights bring to the development discussion a unifying set of standards, or a common reference, for setting objectives and assessing the value of action. Second, that if sustainable economic development and the eradication of poverty are to be achieved, economic growth has to be combined with the concept of human development and respect for human rights.
Third, central to the rights-based approach is the norm of gender equality, which resists, rather than accommodates, relativist approaches to the interpretation of human rights.
The paper begins with a survey of international human rights law, considering first, the development of international human rights standards and their reflection in regional human rights systems and at the domestic level.
It moves on to consider gender-specific norms and standards, concentrating on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.The Peacebuilding Initiative is an evolving project, which benefits from the knowledge and experience of its users.
We welcome you to submit a resource or document to the . General Recommendation No. 3 (sixth session, ) The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Considering that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against.
Gender identity is defined as a personal conception of oneself as male, female, both, or neither. In , President Obama signed an executive order barring discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity among federal contractors.
In the States The ERA in the States. The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress on March 22, and sent to the states for ratification.
Selected links on Gender Based Violence. In , the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women offered the first official definition of the term “Gender-based Violence”: “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including .
Extended reading list (with links) and study guide on what causes gender inequality (stratification). Aimed at graduate sociology and comprehensive examinations.