Advanced Search Abstract Since its independence inNigeria has struggled unsuccessfully to clearly articulate the relationship between religion and the state. Whereas the British colonialists seemingly bequeathed to the new nation-state a secular regime at independence, the internal contradictions, which, paradoxically were propagated by the colonial authority, incubated to pose a challenge to the new state soon thereafter. This article therefore seeks to situate the legal and constitutional frontiers of state—religion relations in Nigeria.
Yoruba, Maasai, Igbo Intro: The case studies presented herein give insight to how the shifts of power in colonial rule gave rise to deep social changes, including the meaning of gender roles and their relative behaviors. The invasive, western model shapes power around gender and sex systems Matory In both the Maasai and Igbo societies gender roles were based around interaction with natural resources such as crops and livestock products HodgsonI, II, Korieh, We intend to explain how by replacing gender systems that had logical bearing within traditional societies, colonialism caused the female role to become defined by its opposition to the male role rather than by natural resources or lineage.
The case studies will highlight how the imposed colonial gender roles did not give women a sphere of their own; therefore they become defined as a second sex, without the means to access power. Sex is the biological difference in maleness or femaleness while gender is a socially and culturally-constructed and maintained set of ideals and standards, that are performed to define the status of maleness or femaleness.
However, she also refutes the fact of sex as well due to their need to be distinguished on the falsely gendered terms of male and female. Therefore Butler has theorized that both sex and gender are constructed and therefore characteristics of bodies are not able to be classified by the cultural binary as it exists.
Power and autonomy is a sense of volition and influence over the relationships and behaviors of the persons in a system. If the system is simply the self, self-determination and the ability to promote decisive changes are characteristics of power.
In addition, a gender, or group of people whose importance, usefulness, or even existence is dependent on the presence of another sex or group of people, is a population without autonomy or power.
These people would not have power, just as Simone de Beauvoir describes the second sex as not having power, since a place or other person defines them.
This means there is no inherent reason or purpose for the second sex without the presence of another.
The Yoruba case is a clear depiction of a society where power relations were traced through their age-grading culture. The Yoruba people are located mainly in southern Nigeria. Until missionaries and colonialism influenced the area, most of the Yoruba were genderless beings.
Instead of having a culture that was divided through gender expectations and hierarchies, the Yoruba people used seniority as an organizing system. The newcomer, as the person would be referred to, would be ranked below all the members of the family she married in to.
Although it seems like this person is now stuck on the bottom of an immovable power hierarchy, this was not the case. The newcomer has the ability to move throughout the power system by having children.
This system not only allowed for people to fill many different roles compared to western society in which people may only fill the roles allowed to their gender but it also allows for all people to have access to power in all spheres.
The Maasai of Tanzania is a case that provides a clear depiction of a pastoral society, subsisting traditionally on nomadic livestock. This way of relating to the environment seemed to express very subtle yet impactful differences in gender ideology found in the social dynamics of the culture.
These cattle would be paid to the father and the mother of the bride as well as in some instances with partitions paid to the bride herself Hodgson I, Wangui, Daughters therefore pose an important sense of wealth themselves to families due to their marriageable quality with which to acquire bridewealth for their family.
Property dynamics were largely regulated through meaningful exchanges at birth, naming ceremonies, circumcisions of males and females, marriage, status changes associated with age-grade, and peace-making ceremonies.
Cattle possession and the success and proliferation of cattle lead to power by whomever was the owner- the overseer of this process being men.
Pre-colonial Igbo The Igbo people of Nigeria provide detailed accounts of agrarian subsistence methods and how their culture is regulated by such a lifestyle. The underlying powers of the female deity Idemili Amadiume,as discussed in the Igbo case, provides a backbone to the realized belief that women have characteristic powers of industriousness as well as strong powers which maintain family structure in essential and sustaining ways.
Igbo agrarian societies have traditionally followed careful gender divisions of crops such as the male yam and female cassava plants.In this paper we consider the relationship between social change and religion using perspectives other than secularization. Specifically, we utilize perspectives from (1) broad currents of world-historical change, (2) communication and media studies, and (3) postmodernism.
In today’s Nigeria different people from different quarters of the country hold the notion that things can only be righted when their own is on the throne. It is fascinating to note that today’s politics in Nigeria revolves around two variables, namely; religion and ethnicity.
Significance of the Study This paper examines the socio-economic impact of political violence on the development of Yobe State. Thus, its significance lies in the fact that it aims at giving a coherent analysis of the causes and nature of political violence in Yobe State and Nigeria generally.
Politics Impact. Religion has had a significant impact on the political system in many countries. Notably, most Muslim-majority countries adopt various aspects of sharia, the Islamic law.
Some countries even define themselves in religious terms, such as The Islamic Republic of Iran. Apr 24, · In the novel by Chinua Achebe, “Things Fall Apart”, the Igbo people are at a watershed moment in their history and culture. The incursion of the colonizing force is changing or threatening to change almost every aspect of their society: religion, family structure, gender roles and relations, and trade, to name just a few.
The estimate on the pre-colonial ethnic institutions index retains its statistical and economic significance. In columns (7)–(9) we require that one of the two adjacent ethnic groups was part of a pre-colonial state.